Biology (DNA)

mutation: a change in the DNA sequence that is inherited

frameshift mutation: a mutation that causes the reading frame of codons to change, usually resulting in different amino acids being incorporated into the polypeptide

point mutation: a mutation at a specific base pair in the genome

nonsense mutation: a mutation that converts a codon from an amino acid into a termination codon

missense mutation: a mutation that results in the single substitution of one amino acid in the resulting polypeptide

2. Nitrogen-base additions can be more harmful than nitrogen-base substitutions, because a nitrogen-base substitution can result in the expression of a different amino acid codon. ...

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more harmful than a missense mutation. A nonsense mutation results in the termination of translation and therefore the protein that is to be translated is not fully synthesized, rendering it inactive. A missense mutation results in one amino acid change. The result is a protein that may or may not function to full capacity, depending on where the amino acid substitution has fallen. A missense mutation can be just as harmful as a nonsense mutation, but there is the slight chance that it will not.

4. Three factors that produce gene mutations are UV radiation, X rays, and chemicals such as pesticides.

5. The stop codons are UGA, UAA, and UAG. Using Figure 7, Section 5.2, p. 240 of the Student Text, the following codons can be changed by one base and become stop codons: UAU, UAC, UGU, UGC, UGG, UUA, UCA, UUG, UCG, CGA, AGA, GGA, CAA, CAG, AAA, AAG, GAA, and GAG. These codons differ by one nitrogenous base from a stop codon. Applying Inquiry Skills

6. AUG–UUU–UUG–CCU–UAU–CAU–CGU ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 4/3/2011 04:35:05 PM
Submitted By: bizzle2dope
Category: Biology
Type: Free Paper
Words: 543
Pages: 2

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