Cardiovascular Disease


The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a variety of diseases and conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, principally high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. (Ascherio, 1996) Almost 10 million Americans aged 65 years and older report disabilities caused by heart disease. Stroke is also a leading cause of disability in the United States, accounting for the reported cause of disability among more than 1 million people nationwide. Almost 6 million hospitalizations each year are due to cardiovascular disease. The number one killer in America is cardiovascular disease. In 1991, heart and blood vessel diseases killed more than 923,000 Americans. More than two of every ...

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were in Japan, France, Spain, Switzerland, and Canada. (Goldstein, 1995)
Biological theories abound state that women tend to have better chances of not developing Cardiovascular disease. In one study, (Mendelson, 1999) Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women has been associated with a decreased risk of heart disease Women are less susceptible than men to as long as their blood estrogen levels are elevated. Estrogens can directly bind to a subunit of the maxi-K channel. These calcium-regulated potassium channels are key regulators of vascular smooth muscle cells, which constrict arteries and raise blood pressure. This acute estrogen effect does not require genome activation or generation of other intracellular signals. New data indicate that estrogen replacement therapy may decrease mortality by 50% for women who have survived a first heart attack, (Nabulsi, 1993). The findings were based on data compiled over 13 years. For those patients who received ERT after having a first ...

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alone.
Family history can also be a major cause of in both men and women. According to a study by John Silberberg et al (1998) of people who completed a detailed family history questionnaire in 1992-1994, The net bias in both selection and recall is toward the null and hence the comparisons provide a conservative estimate of risk of CHD associated with a positive family history.
However, many also claim that the risk of does not lie within your genetic structure, but how you take care of your body. Certainly it has been proven that a healthy diet and acceptable levels of body fat lower the chances of someone exhibiting cardiovascular disease. In a study by Laura Yochum et al. (1999) it ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 8/18/2005 09:35:43 PM
Category: Health & Medicine
Type: Free Paper
Words: 1330
Pages: 5

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