El Nino


has been a reoccurring phenomenon for centuries. Man has only started to realize how much of the worlds weather is effected by it. The term refers to an irregular warming of the seas surface. During the last 40 years there have been 10 significant occurrences. Most affecting the coast of South America. Water temperatures increase along the coast as far as the Galapagos islands. Weak events will raise the water temperature 2 to 4 degrees Celsius and will have minor impact on fishing. However strong events such as the 1982-83 event will disrupt climate conditions around the world as well as local conditions. It has been linked to floods and droughts all over the world. ...

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elsewhere. Due to a lack of data during occurrences it is not fully known if fish populations are depleted solely due to exposure to . A decrease in their growth and reproductive success has been observed by many surveys in coastal waters.
The link between climatic effects around the world and is now well established. It has taken many years of studying to understand how the pieces of the puzzle, from ocean currents to winds and heavy rains fit together. During the 1920s a scientist was on assignment in India trying to predict the Asian monsoons. As he sorted through his records he discovered a connection between barometer readings at stations on the eastern and western sides of the Pacific. He noticed that when pressure rises in the west it usually falls in the east and vice versa. He coined this term Southern Oscillation. When it is on its high index state pressure is high on the eastern side of the Pacific and low on the western side (figure 1). The east west ...

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of ocean stays free of clouds during normal years and rain in the equatorial belt is largely confined to the extreme western Pacific near Indonesia.

But when the easterlies weaken and retreat eastward during early stages of an El Nino event, the upwelling slows and the ocean warms. The moist air above the ocean also warms. It becomes light enough to form deep clouds which produce heavy rain along the equador. The change in ocean temperatures causes a major rain zone over the western Pacific to shift eastward. Related adjustments in the atmosphere cause barometers to drop over the central and eastern Pacific and rise over Indonesia and Australia. This results in a further weakening ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 6/16/2005 02:58:43 PM
Category: Science & Nature
Type: Free Paper
Words: 2243
Pages: 9

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