Fetal Alcohol Syndrome And Fetal Alcohol Effects


Prenatal alcohol exposure is a preventable cause of birth defects, including mental retardation and neurodevelopmental deficits. Since the initial recognition in 1968 of the multiple effects that alcohol can have on the developing fetus [1] and the subsequent delineation in 1973 of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), [2] it has become clear that prenatal alcohol exposure can be associated with a wide range of abnormalities. [3]
More than 80% of children with FAS demonstrate prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, mild to moderate mental retardation, microcephaly, infantile irritability, and characteristic facial features. Fifty percent of affected individuals also have poor coordination, ...

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hyperactivity, fine-motor impairment, and clumsiness as well as more subtle delays in
motor performance and speech disorders. [4] These findings have been referred to as fetal alcohol
effects (FAE).
As recently described, FAS and FAE produce profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial problems that persist to date of follow-up of those affected. In the most comprehensive and far-reaching study to date, Streissguth et al [5] traced the natural history into adulthood and demonstrated the profound, pervasive, and persistent nature of the biopsychosocial manifestations of these disorders. Cognitively those affected maintained subnormal intellectual functioning; demonstrated specific arithmetic deficiency; had extreme difficulty with abstractions such as time and space, cause and effect; and could not generalize from one situation to another. They also demonstrated inattention, poor concentration, memory deficit, impaired judgment, and impaired comprehensive and abstract reasoning. ...

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of alcohol for pregnant women. However, mothers of
children with fully expressed FAS drink alcohol more and drink earlier in gestation than those with
infants without fully expressed clinical features. Mothers who only drink later in gestation have an
increased frequency of premature deliveries and deliveries of babies small for gestational age. [11]
In one study, Mills et al [12] prospectively studied 31604 pregnancies in an attempt to
determine how much drinking in pregnancy is safe. The consumption of at least one to two drinks a
day was associated with a substantially increased risk of giving birth to a growth-retarded baby. [12]
Alpert and Zuckerman [13] have ...

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome And Fetal Alcohol Effects. (2008, July 11). Retrieved September 22, 2018, from http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Fetal-Alcohol-Syndrome-Fetal-Alcohol-Effects/86610
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"Fetal Alcohol Syndrome And Fetal Alcohol Effects." Essayworld.com. July 11, 2008. Accessed September 22, 2018. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Fetal-Alcohol-Syndrome-Fetal-Alcohol-Effects/86610.
"Fetal Alcohol Syndrome And Fetal Alcohol Effects." Essayworld.com. July 11, 2008. Accessed September 22, 2018. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Fetal-Alcohol-Syndrome-Fetal-Alcohol-Effects/86610.
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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 7/11/2008 08:50:51 AM
Category: Science & Nature
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1444
Pages: 6

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