Indus Civilization

The , an ancient civilization in South Asia, existed from about 2700 to 1750 BC. It is sometimes referred to as the Harappan civilization, named for the site of Harappa, one of its major centers. Geographically one of the most extensive early civilizations of the Old World, it stretched from north of the Hindu Kush down the entire length of the Indus and beyond into peninsular India; in the west, outposts that extended almost to the present-day Iranian-Pakistani border have been found along the inhospitable Makran coast. Unlike the ancient Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations, which were largely restricted to river valleys and their alluvial plains, remains of the have been found in ...

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in lands east of the Iranian plateau is still obscure, but the results of excavations at the important site of Mehrgarh, at the foot of the Bolan Pass, indicate that large settlements may have existed as early as the 7th millennium BC.
Two thousand or more years later sites in eastern Baluchistan and the Indus Valley were larger and more numerous; at some, like Kot Diji on the east bank of the Indus, archaeologists have found various distinctive ceramic objects, such as terra-cotta toy carts. From this evidence archaeologists speculate that there took place an early, or pre-Harappan, spread of culture from the Punjab south to the Arabian Sea. Scholars differ as to whether or not these early settlements evolved directly into the urban communities of the mature , but it is clear from archaeological research that by the late 4th millennium (c.3200 BC) large villages were being formed along the entire course of the Indus River.
Major Centers
The famous cities of the mature ...

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of the major buildings contained in the citadel, including the placement of a large granary and water tank or bath at right angles to one another. The lower city, which was tightly packed with residential units, was also constructed on a grid pattern consisting of a number of blocks separated by major cross streets. Baked-brick houses faced the street, and domestic life was centered around an enclosed courtyard. Sanitation was provided through an extensive system of covered drains running the length of the main streets and connected by chutes with most residences.
Other important centers include the almost identical city of Harappa, located 640 km (400 mi) northeast of Mohenjo-daro, in ...

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Indus Civilization. (2004, March 1). Retrieved December 16, 2018, from
"Indus Civilization.", 1 Mar. 2004. Web. 16 Dec. 2018. <>
"Indus Civilization." March 1, 2004. Accessed December 16, 2018.
"Indus Civilization." March 1, 2004. Accessed December 16, 2018.
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Added: 3/1/2004 03:18:51 AM
Category: World History
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1375
Pages: 5

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