The Rise Of The Manchus


Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese and were strongly resisted, especially
in the south, they had assimilated a great deal of Chinese culture before
conquering China Proper. Realizing that to dominate the empire they would have
to do things the Chinese way, the Manchus retained many institutions of Ming and
earlier Chinese derivation. They continued the Confucian court practices and
temple rituals, over which the emperors had traditionally presided. The Manchus
continued the Confucian civil service system. Although Chinese were barred from
the highest offices, Chinese officials predominated over Manchu officeholders
outside the capital, except in military positions. The Neo-Confucian ...

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Manchus were forbidden to engage in trade or manual labor. Intermarriage
between the two groups was forbidden. In many government positions a system of
dual appointments was used--the Chinese appointee was required to do the
substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule.

The Qing regime was determined to protect itself not only from internal
rebellion but also from foreign invasion. After China Proper had been subdued,
the Manchus conquered Outer Mongolia (now the Mongolian People's Republic) in
the late seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century they gained control of
Central Asia as far as the Pamir Mountains and established a protectorate over
the area the Chinese call Xizang () but commonly known in the West as Tibet. The
Qing thus became the first dynasty to eliminate successfully all danger to China
Proper from across its land borders. Under Manchu rule the empire grew to
include a larger area than before or since; Taiwan, the last outpost of ...

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dealt
severely with those who deviated from orthodoxy.

By the nineteenth century, China was experiencing growing internal pressures of
economic origin. By the start of the century, there were over 300 million
Chinese, but there was no industry or trade of sufficient scope to absorb the
surplus labor. Moreover, the scarcity of land led to widespread rural discontent
and a breakdown in law and order. The weakening through corruption of the
bureaucratic and military systems and mounting urban pauperism also contributed
to these disturbances. Localized revolts erupted in various parts of the empire
in the early nineteenth century. Secret societies, such as the White Lotus sect
() in the ...

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The Rise Of The Manchus. (2004, January 30). Retrieved January 21, 2018, from http://www.essayworld.com/essays/The-Rise-Of-The-Manchus/2268
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"The Rise Of The Manchus." Essayworld.com. January 30, 2004. Accessed January 21, 2018. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/The-Rise-Of-The-Manchus/2268.
"The Rise Of The Manchus." Essayworld.com. January 30, 2004. Accessed January 21, 2018. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/The-Rise-Of-The-Manchus/2268.
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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 1/30/2004 09:45:57 PM
Category: World History
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 4449
Pages: 17

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