Affirmative Action

as defined by the Meriam Webster's Dictionary is an
active effort to improve the employment or educational opportunities of members
of minority groups or women.
In 1961 John F.Kennedy issued an executive order calling for Affirmative
Action as a means to promote equal opportunity for racial minorities, in hiring
by federal contractors. This was the first official use of the term by the
Federal Government. Eight years later Nixon as President beefed up the Office of
Federal Compliance Programs, which along with the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission has become one of the governments two main enforcers of affirmative
action policy.(Grolier's Electronic Encyclopedia, 1993)
Such ...

Want to read the rest of this paper?
Join Essayworld today to view this entire essay
and over 50,000 other term papers

Encyclopedia, 1993)
Affirmative action plans that establish racial quotas were declared
unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the case of University of California VS.
Bakke in 1978. This case arose when the medical school of the University of
California at Davis twice rejected Allen Bakke's application while admitting
members of racial minorities who had lower test scores. Bakke charged that the
medical school's policy of setting aside 16 of the 100 positions for racial
minorities was a violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment.
In a complex 5-4 decision the Supreme Court ordered that Bakke be admitted. The
court ruled that even though universities may consider race and ethnic origins
as a factor in evaluating candidates for admission, they may not establish fixed
racial quotas.(Time Magazine, May 27 1991, pp.22)
The decision was, however upheld in the case of Private Business and
Unions in United Steelworkers of America vs. Webber in 1979. ...

Get instant access to over 50,000 essays.
Write better papers. Get better grades.

Already a member? Login

Affirmative action has moved to the forefront of public debate in recent
months with a proposed California ballot initiative that would end many race-
based preference programs. The University of California itself has become the
focus of debate after Ward Connerly, a Regent for the University of California
system called for an end to such preferences in admissions. The Chancellor of
UCLA Charles E. Young, quickly took a strong stand against Mr. Connerly, saying
that affirmative action had benefited the university and should
continue.(NY.Times, June 4 1995, pp.22)
The University Of California at Berkeley campus was among the first of
the nations' leading universities to embrace the ...

Succeed in your coursework without stepping into a library.
Get access to a growing library of notes, book reports,
and research papers in 2 minutes or less.


Affirmative Action. (2004, June 14). Retrieved December 13, 2018, from
"Affirmative Action.", 14 Jun. 2004. Web. 13 Dec. 2018. <>
"Affirmative Action." June 14, 2004. Accessed December 13, 2018.
"Affirmative Action." June 14, 2004. Accessed December 13, 2018.
Join today and get instant access to this and 50,000+ other essays

Added: 6/14/2004 09:01:36 AM
Category: Government
Type: Free Paper
Words: 1638
Pages: 6

Save | Report


Save and find your favorite essays easier

Affirmative Action Policies
The Need For Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action And Its Eff
Affirmative Action - Does It W
Anti-Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action
Quotas Are Outdated In Affirmat...
Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action Programs
Copyright | Cancel | Contact Us

Copyright © 2018 Essayworld. All rights reserved